The micturition or urination is controlled act of expulsion of a urine from the body. It happens through the urinary tube. This act may be uncontrolled in children and in elderly. Urine is a liquid that is produced by filtration in the kidneys. It contains the waste product of the organism. Therefore, regular urination is very important for the health of all organs.
Organs That Allow the Micturition
The urinary system is assembled of several organs. The kidneys are organs which filter blood or isolate waste material generated by the metabolism. That is how the urine ensue. From each kidney, a ureter drains the urine into the bladder and from the bladder one urethra ends by the small aperture on the outer of the sexual organs.
Why We Urinate?
Urinating occurs using reflexes that include sending a signal from the walls of the urinary bladder to the brain. Urine drains from the kidneys to the bladder through the ureters. When the bladder gets filled with the urine, the walls widen. Nerves that are placed in the wall of the bladder, send signals if the bladder is full and must be emptied. These signals travel through the spinal cord to the brain. The brain receives the information and sends the answer for the bladder to be emptied. The answer arrives in the walls of the bladder, and to the muscles at the end of the urethra. There are two circular muscles that open the urethra and the micturition occurs. There is the urge for urination, but we choose the place and time when to do it. Why is that so? At the end of the urethra, there are two small circular muscles. They have a role of opening and closing the exit of the urethra. One of them receives signals from the vegetative nervous system and the other one from the autonomic nervous system. The outer muscle is controlled by our will, so we have the control over the whole process. We voluntary open and close the circular muscle, as well as we do with the muscle movements in the face, legs, arms, etc.
Problems Related to Micturition
The problems related to urination can be urinary incontinence when we cannot control the urge to urinate, and urinary retention, when we are unable to excrete the urine out of the body.
The Urinary Incontinence
Young children do not have a sufficiently developed center for coordination of voluntary movements and it’s one of the reasons why they are not able to control the act of urination. Another reason is the psychological immaturity to control instincts. This can be regulated between the first and the second year of life. In the elderly urinary incontinence can also happen due to the weakness of the circular muscle that is no longer able to contract as it used to. There is a condition caused by trauma in a car accident or operation or physical force in some other way, which is why the pathway, through which signals travel, is interrupted. In this case, there is no exchange of information between the brain and the organs that are below the injury location. This happens mostly with spinal cord injury.
The Urinary Retention
The inability of the urinary act is mainly caused by physical barriers in the ureter or urethra. This may be a tumor or a stone. With the appearance of these barriers, the stretching of the ureter wall or the urethra can be very painful and can be dangerous for the patient. If this happens, you should immediately contact your doctor so you would prevent any complications such as organ rupture.