The blood was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of certain proteins on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is divided into four blood types A, B, AB and O. ABO blood group system determines a gene that has three different categories: A, B, and O. These three groups can be combined in 6 possible ways, forming 6 different genotypes. Blood groups A and B are dominant over the O blood type, and they are co-dominant.
Person genotype AA or AO has blood group A because in his/her red blood cells are the antigen A. The situation is similar in people with blood group B (genotypes BB and BO), only, their erythrocyte surface antigen is B. When the surface of red blood cells finds the pair on the homologous chromosomes antigens A and B (genotype AB), that person will have the antigen A and antigen B. Such a person has a blood type AB. Blood type O determines a genotype – homozygous recessive (OO). O blood group does not contain any of the antigens, thus, those people are O blood type.
Blood Type Chart
We already know that there are four main blood types: A, O, B and AB and we know that they are inherited from our parents. What further defines a person’s blood group was a rhesus factor – Rh factor. Rh factor can be positive (+) or negative (-). Most people or about 85% of the population is Rh positive.
Rh (Rhesus Factor) – What Is It All About?
On the surface of the red blood cells are proteins that are specific for each blood type. Blood type A is one type of a protein, B has another, AB group has both, and a zero group does not have any. In addition to these proteins, which determine which blood group you belong to, there is another type which is found in blood cells of some people, whereas some people don’t have that factor. This protein is referred to as “Rh factor” according to the name of the species, where the “Rhesus” means “monkey”. Those who have it in their cells are Rh positive, those who do not have it are Rh-negative. If a woman is Rh negative and the man is Rh positive, and if they have a baby together, there is a potential risk of incompatibility. If the woman in the first pregnancy is carrying Rh positive baby which received the Rh factor from the father, and the mother is Rh negative, the mother’s blood will create antibodies against the factor. The antibodies will start the “war” against the baby’s red blood cells because they don’t recognize it and it is a foreign body. They will quickly pass through the placenta into the baby’s bloodstream and cause mass destruction of the red blood cells, which will lead to severe anemia and, in the worst scenario, the death of a child in the womb.
Blood Type Population Chart
Blood type A – This blood type is the most widespread in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost half of the population in Denmark, Norway, Austria and Ukraine has this blood type.
Blood type B – B blood type is very rare in Europe (about 10%) and still more often represented in Asia. Almost 25% of China’s population has this blood type. Also, B blood type is represented in India and other countries in Central Asia.
Blood type O – O blood type is the most common worldwide. It is particularly represented among the Aborigines in Australia, the Celtic nations, as well as those who live in Western Europe and in America.
Blood type AB – AB is the rarest blood type and is represented with as much as 10% in Japan, Korea, and China, while in other regions rather rarely represented.
Blood Type Transfusion Chart
In 1818, Dr. James Bland performed the first successful transfusion of a human blood, for the treatment of a woman who shed blood. In the period from 1825 to 1830, Bland has performed 10 blood transfusions, five of which were beneficial and helpful, so it ended with results. In addition, Bland has invented a large number of instruments for transfusion (syringe, a needle for venipuncture, etc.). Of course, transfusions began to be successfully implemented only after the discovery of blood groups and problem-solving therapy usability blood transfusion. Development transfusion started with the discovery of the ABO blood group system in 1901 and the citrate use as an anticoagulant in 1915. The knowledge that the addition of the dextrose will extend the storage of a blood up to 4 weeks was also a great discovery. Chemical analysis has shown that carriers of a blood group A are in the membranes of erythrocytes called agglutinogen A specific protein (antigen A). When the blood type A is given to someone who does not have the same protein, it will come to agglutination because the blood plasma has the type of antibody (agglutinin α or anti-A) which will react with the A antigen . The consequence of this phenomenon is that the O blood type is a universal donor and the blood type AB is a universal recipient. This is due to the presence of the antibodies and antigens. The O blood type has both antibodies which will react with any of the antigens present in A, B or AB blood group, thus, causing agglutination. The blood type AB has both antigens and neither of the antibodies, making it a recipient which can be mixed with all of the blood types. There are no antibodies to react with the following antigens.
Immunogenetics Blood Group
Founder of the immunology of the blood is considered to be Karl Landsteiner who, along with his associates, discovered the ABO blood group system. Although it is not entirely clear why all the people have antibodies to agglutinogens which are not expressed on the surface of their red blood cells (although they have never been exposed), universally accepted assumption is that some intestinal bacteria exhibit very similar antigens on the surface of their membranes that initiates the production of specific antibodies very early in the life of individuals.
Blood Type Based Diet
The discovery of blood groups has greatly contributed to the understanding of the antigen-antibody reaction, which has helped the later discovery and understanding of the concepts in immunology, immunohematology, molecular biology and genetics. Considering different blood cells (various ABO blood group system), certain food will be a cure for some, but for others nearly a poison, according to Dr. Peter D’Adamo. The essence of the theory of the blood group diets lies in the discovery that a blood group antigens will behave differently in biochemical reactions to a certain food.