The average weight of the human brain is about 3 lbs. (1,400 grams). It is built out of gray and white matter constructed into gyri and sulci. The sulci are the clefts which separate the gyri which are the brain ridges that are forming the brain mass. The brain itself resembles walnut and it is divided into two hemispheres, left and right. Each of these hemisphere is divided into four lobes which we will cover next. These lobes are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe. The brain has stored from 50 to 100 billion of neurons which give the brain its function.
Lobes of The Brain
Since each of the four lobes can have a different function and location, and the damage of the specific lobe can mean damage of certain brain function, let’s investigate each of those.
The Frontal Lobe
The frontal lobe is the one which has control over emotions and it is included in decision making. It is located in the front of our brain and up to central sulcus where it is connected with the other parts of the brain. Here are some of the functions it controls:
- Parts of speech
- Problem-solving, cognition, reasoning
- Regulation of emotions
- Regulation of the sexual urges
- Decision making
- Motor skill development
- Impulse control and spontaneity
Since frontal lobe is positioned at the front of the body, it is more exposed to injury and damage. It can be injured during car accidents, accidental fall, etc. The tissue contusion can lead from a skull punch and it can result in personality changes, change in behavior and sexual urge, impulses, and other irregularities.
The Parietal Lobe
The parietal lobe is behind the frontal lobe on the top middle part of the brain. It goes from the central sulcus to the occipital lobe. It is in charge of our perception, sensations, part of speech, spatial orientation. It receives impulses from the senses and reads the information in order to present it to our brain. It includes:
- Part of Speech
- Movement and visual orientation
- Regulation of body’s senses
- Visual perception and recognition
- Processing of cognitive information
- Recognition of the pain, touch and pressure
If parietal lobe would outcome in damage, we would have problems with reading, writing, language and understanding spoken words but also understanding written words and symbols, we would have spatial problems as well. There is a difference whichever part of the brain is damaged. If the right parietal lobe is injured, the problems would be associated with the ability to groom yourself, dress, etc. But when it comes to the left side injury, it is accompanied with language and perception disorders.
The Temporal Lobe
The temporal lobe is located on the sides of the brain, below the lateral fissure. It is linked with language and sound interpretation and recognition and it is the primary auditory cortex. It senses sounds from the external surroundings, thus, they are the closest to the ears. Their functions are:
- Sound and language interpreting
- Creation of visual and verbal memories
- Smell interpretation
- Conversion of the short-term memory into a long-term memory, which is processed in the hippocampus which is located in the temporal lobe
The temporal lobe damage would result in distorted visual perception as well as auditory sensation. It would prevent the creation of long-term memory and it would lead to personality and behavior changes, including a change in sexual drive.
The Occipital Lobe
The last lobe of the brain is located at the back, bellow the parietal and behind temporal lobe. It plays a role in processing visual information. Since it is primary visual center of the brain, its functions include:
- Visual recognition
- Spatial information
- Color recognition
- Movement recognition
Although it is the smallest of them all, it is prone to injury since it can be damaged in various occasions such as fall from a higher place on the legs or even on the bottom. It would lead to visual problems such as loss of color recognition, problems with object recognition, language misunderstandings, illusions, and hallucinations.
Although the two hemispheres have the same lobes on each side of the brain, each of that lobe has a different function, where the damage of certain side can lead to different symptoms. If you have hurt your head in any way and you are having some of the symptoms mentioned above, it is extremely important to get urgent medical attention in order to prevent any permanent brain damage and other complications.