Non-communicable diseases or NCDs are diseases which are not transferable with contact, with droplets, direct contact or any other way. This kind of diseases are only affecting the individual and can be from mild to severe ones. According to the World Health Organization, NCDs kill around 38 millions of people each year. We will try to cover some of them.
Who Has A High Risk Of Getting This Kind Of Disease?
Although it depends on the age, region, and other factors, all people are affected by NCDs. This kind of diseases are responsible for about 80% of premature death, especially in low and middle-income countries. Some of the groups who are more at risk are newborns, elderly and breastfeeding mothers. A certain behavior can affect the manifestation of the diseases such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol abuse, a poor meal plan with a lot of fats and sugar and other lifestyle factors. All of this can be fixed with modified lifestyle and diet.
Most Common Non-Communicable Diseases
We will try to list some of the NCDs that are common in the world, causing a high rate of death. Some key diseases are cancer, cardiovascular and chronical kidney disease and diabetes.
Type 2 of diabetes is the form of diabetes which can be influenced on. It depends a lot on the environment factors and also behavior. It is preventable if a person with a higher risk takes precaution. It develops because of the resistance of the cells receptors to insulin causing high sugar in the blood due to prevented entrance inside the cells. Type 1 is the juvenile type of diabetes, it develops from insulin insufficiency in the pancreas where the beta cells are destroyed due to immune system reaction. It can be partial or total. It requires lifelong insulin injections.
Heart disease is very common and although it depends a lot on genetics, a lifestyle can have a huge impact on the heart disease occurrence. Some of the things that are preventable include salt intake limit, physical activity, fast food reduction and fat reduction. A high-fat meal plan can have an effect on the vessels causing deposition on the inner surface resulting in atherosclerosis and heart disease risk. It can cause heart attack, heart arrhythmia, unstable angina pectoris, endocarditis, mitral valve and aortic regurgitation and other.
Hypertension is a condition of a high blood pressure over 140/90 and it can be due to many happenings. Pre-cardiac hypertension can happen in a form of hypervolemia and can become a load to the heart which can’t pump that much blood. Other causes can be kidney diseases, salt intake, obesity, diabetes.
Skin cancer depends a lot on the sun, so if you spend too much time in the sun when burning still, it resonates UVB light with can cause skin cancer. It is more common on more exposed areas of the skin, such as the face, neck. Those who have less pigmentation in the skin are at higher risk of skin cancer, such as blondes, blue-eyed people, redheads, white people. Avoid direct sun exposure at 90 degrees when the sun is right above you. Use sunscreen creams with high SPF.
Osteoporosis is a condition of a decrease in bone density due to loss of bone matrix and crystals. This is also regulated a lot with hormone levels in the body, especially parathormone, estrogen, and Vitamin D. Calcitonin reduces the calcium, but it is rarely high in abnormal conditions. Loss of hormones, especially in women after menopause has a high risk of osteoporosis development. Bones can become thinner and easy to break so it is important to take some supplements to reduce this risk.
It is familiar to the world that smoking has a big influence on lung cancer development. Smoking tobacco and cigarets can increase the risk of the lung cancer due to constant irritation of the respiratory tract where the cells try to recover and to substitute the damaged ones. Because of this effect, it is more likely for mutation to happen. Lung cancer has a risk of 90% of appearing in smokers, wherein non-smokers that level is insignificant.
This is a disease that leads to memory loss and nerve system damage. Dementia develops usually after 60 years of life, where it starts with some small forgetting of names, dates, and go to heavier memory loss where a person can’t recognize family and friends. It can be very stressful where a person can have a change of personality and can affect also people around them.
Fibromyalgia is a disease which affects connective tissue and muscles. It can progress from muscle pain to headaches, bowel irritation syndrome, sleep disorders. It can also affect memory and heart rhythm because the heart is a muscle too. It can cause swallowing difficulties and other problems which can be life-threatening.
Other non-communicable diseases are asthma, cataract, obesity, stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, chronical kidney diseases, liver cirrhosis, appendicitis, narcolepsy, emphyema, anorexia nervosa, arteriosclerosis and others. Because these diseases are preventable and we can affect their incidence, it is important to know how to reduce it and what are the steps.